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Spark plasma sintering gradient materials

Spark plasma sintering gradient materials

   Spark plasma sintering is a kind of powder metallurgy sintering technology to produce high performance materials by loading metal and ceramic powder into the mold, applying special sintering power and pressing pressure to sintering powder by upper and lower die punching and electrified electrode, through discharge activation, thermoplastic deformation and cooling.

    Discharge plasma sintering has the characteristics of sintering in the process of pressurizing. Plasma generated by pulse current and pressurizing during sintering are beneficial to reduce sintering temperature of powder. It is characterized by fast heating rate, short sintering time, controllable structure, energy saving and environmental protection, etc., which can be used to prepare metal materials, ceramic materials, composite materials, nano-block materials, amorphous block materials, gradient materials and so on.

Functionally gradient materials,FGM

    Gradient material (FGMs) is a kind of composite material composed of gradient distribution in a certain direction. When metal and ceramic are bonded together, thermal stress is generated due to the large difference in sintering temperature between them and the different expansion coefficients of the interface, which brings difficulties to the preparation of materials. Using CVD, PVD and other methods to prepare gradient materials is very expensive and difficult to achieve industrial production. SPS method can overcome this problem and realize the gradient distribution of sintering temperature. The characteristics of SPS technique for preparing gradient materials are not only easy to control the composition and structure, but also high compactness of sintered body, so it has excellent performance.

    SPS can manufacture ceramic/metal, polymer/metal and other materials with thermal gradient, abrasion gradient, hardness gradient, conductivity gradient and porosity gradient. The gradient layer can be more than 10 layers to realize the gradient distribution of sintering temperature.

    The following figure shows the mold of SPS preparing gradient material. Due to the different current densities at the upper and lower ends, the temperature gradient of 300~500℃ can be generated by designing graphite mold with variable diameter. Therefore, gradient billets with different compositions can be sintered into gradient materials in the temperature gradient field. Sintering and insulation time is usually only a few minutes.

 

SPS preparation of a variable cross section mold for gradient materials

    At present, the gradient materials with good sintering effect are: stainless steel /ZrO2 series gradient materials; Ni/ZrO2 gradient materials; Al/ polyester imide gradient materials; Al/ plant fiber gradient materials; TiN/Al2O3 composite gradient materials; PSZ/Ti gradient materials; Ti-tib2 -B composite gradient materials.

ZrO2 / SUS, ZrO2 / Ni, Cu/SUS, Al/polyimide resin and Al2O3 / Ti materials

Super hard functional gradient WC/Co materials

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